محاسبه سطح مقطع شکافت به وسیله تابش گاما برای ایزوتوپهای اورانیوم با کمک پتانسیل سه قله ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی کامل

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی گروه فیزیک هسته‌ای، دانشکده علوم پایه، پردیس دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه فیزیک هسته‌ای، دانشکده علوم پایه، پردیس دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق به مقایسه سطح مقطع شکافت توسط اشعه گاما (شکافت فوتونی) ایزوتوپهای اورانیوم, U239-230 به کمک شبیه سازی با استفاده ازمدل اپتیکی پرداخته ایم. برای محاسبه سطح مقطع شکافت فوتونی از احتمال گذار سد پتانسیل سه قله ای استفاده کرده ایم. همچنین برای محاسبه چگالی ترازهای هسته مرکب؛ از مدل پیشرفته ابرشاره1 سود جسته ایم. مقایسه سطح مقطع شکافت فوتونی برای این ایزوتوپها در محدود گسترده ای از انرژی فوتون فرودی و بوسیله نتایج حاصل ازنرم افزار امپایر2 محاسبه و با نتایج تجربی مقایسه گردیده است. سطح مقطع شکافت برای کلیه ایزوتوپهای هسته اورانیوم بصورت تابعی از انرژی در گستره از 5 تا 20 مگا الکترون ولت رسم شده است. نتایج حاصل از محاسبات تطابق بسیار خوبی با مقادیر اندازه گیری شده نشان می دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Photo-fission Cross Section of Uranium Isotopes using three humps barrier

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavani 1
  • Payam Mehdiupour Kaldiani 2
1 Faculty member, Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this investigation calculated cross section of induced photo-fission of uranium Isotopes, 230-239U using simulation through optical model are compared with experimental data. To obtain photo-fission cross section transition probability through three humps fission barrier is used. Also, to calculate level density of compound nucleus, improved version of Enhanced Generalized Super-fluid Model (EGSM) is employed. Simulated cross sections using Empire code for these Isotopes in a wide range of energy are compared with available experimental data. Cross sections for different isotopes of uranium as a function of energy in the range 5 to 20 MeV are plotted. Good agreement achieved when the results of Empire code are compared with available experimental data.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • photo-fission
  • Cross section
  • three humps barrier
  • level densityو Optical Model
  • Uranium isotopes
[1] M.R. Pahlavani, D. Naderi, Study of fusion cross-section in heavy-ion fusion-fission reactions at around fusion barrier energies using the Langevin dynamical approach, The European Physical Journal A 48 (2012) 9.

[2] M.R. Pahlavani, S. Mirfathi, Dynamical simulation of neutron-induced fission of uranium isotopes using four-dimensional Langevin equations, Physical Review C 93 (2016) 4.

[3] R. Haxby, W. Shoupp, W. Stephens, W. Wells, Photo-Fission of Uranium and Thorium, Physical Review 59 (1941) 57.

[4] R. Vandenbosch, J.R. Huizenga, nuclear Fission, Academic, New York, (1973).

[5] J.R. Huizenga, H.C. Britt, Theoretical photofusion-theory and experiment. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Photonuclear Reactions and Applications,2 (1973) 833-4,edited by B. L. Berrnan. 

[6] B.S. Bhandari, I.C. Nascimento, Electrofission and photofission of 238U in the energy range 6-60 MeV, Nuclear Science. Engineer 60 (1976) 19.

[7] Empire II: M. Herman, “EMPIRE-II statistical model code for nuclear reaction calculations,” in Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors (N. Paver, M. Herman, A. Gandini, eds.), vol. 5 of ICTP Lecture Notes, pp. 137–230, ICTP, Trieste, 2001.

[8] W. Nazarewicz, Variety of shapes in the mercury and lead isotopes, Physics Letter B 305 (1993) 195.

[9] R.R. Chasman, Very extended minima in the A=180 mass region, Physical Letter B 302 (1993) 134.

[10] T.R. Werner, J. Dudek, Shape coexistence effects of super- and hyperdeformed configurations in rotating nuclei with 58≤Z≤74, Atomic Data Nuclear Data Tables 50 (1992) 179.

[11] L. Csige, D.M. Filipescu, T. Glodariu, J. Gulyás, M.M. Günther, D. Habs, H.J. Karwowski, A. Krasznahorkay, G.C. Rich, M. Sin, L. Stroe, O. Tesileanu, P.G. Thirolf,  Exploring the multihumped fission barrier of 238U via sub-barrier photofission. Physical Review C 87 (2013) 4.

[12] M.J. Lopez Jiménez, B. Morillon, P. Romain, Triple-humped fission barrier model for a new 238U neutron cross-section evaluation and first validations. Annals of Nuclear Energy 32 2 (2005) 195-213.

[13] U. Brosa, S. Grossmann, A. Müller, 1990. Nuclear scission. Physics Reports 197 4 (1990) 167-262.

[14] M. Sin. R. Capote, S. Goriely, S. Hilaire, A.J. Koning, Neutron-induced fission cross section on actinides using microscopic fission energy surfaces, Internatinal Conferance on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology 22-27 April Nice France (2007).

[15] S.G. Nilsson, J.R. Nix, A. Sobiczewski, Z. Szymanski, S. Wycech, C. Gustafson, P. Moller, On the spontaneous fission of nuclei with Z near 114 and N near 184, Nuclear Physics A 115 (1968) 545.

[16] B.S. Bhandari, Three-hump fission barrier in Th, Physical Review C 19 (1979) 1820.

[17] N. Froman, P.O. Froman, JWKB Approximation Contributions to the Theory, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, (1965).

[18] P.G. Thirolf, D. Habs, Spectroscopy in the Second and Third Minimum of Actinide Nuclei, Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 49 (2002) 325-402

[19] D.L. Hill, J.A. Wheeler, Nuclear Constitution and the Interpretation of Fission Phenomena, Physical Review 89 (1953) 1102.

[20] M. Sin, R. Capote, Transmission through multi-humped fission barriers with absorption: A recursive approach, Physical Review C 77 (2008) 054601.

[21] A.V. Ignatyuk, Technical Report INDC (CCP)-233, IAEA, Vienna, Austria

[22] A. Junghans , M. de Jong, , H. Clerc, A. Ignatyuk, G. Kudyaev, K. Schmidt, Projectile-fragment yields as a probe for the collective enhancement in the nuclear level density, Nuclear Physics A 629 3-4 (1998) 635-655.

[23] B.L. Berman, J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, S. S. Dietrich, P. Meyer, R.A. Alvarez, Photofission and photoneutron cross sections and photofission neutron multiplicities for 233U, 234U, 237Np, and 239Pu, Physical Review C 34 (1986) 2201

[24] B.L. Berman, J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, S.S. Dietrich, P. Meyer, R.A. Alvarez, Photofission and photoneutron cross sections and photofission neutron multiplicities for 233U, 234U, 237Np, and 239Pu, Physical Review C 34(1986) 2201

[25] C.D. Bowman, G.F. Auchampaugh, S.C. Fultz, Photodisintegration of 235U, Physical Review 133 (1964) B 676

[26] J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, B.L. Berman, R.A. Alvarez, P. Meyer, Giant resonance for the actinide nuclei: Photoneutron and photofission cross sections for 235U, 236U, 238U, and 232Th, Physical Review C 21(1980) 1215

[27] R.A. Anderl, M.V. Yester, R.C. Morrison,  Photofission cross sections of 238U and 235U from 5.0 MeV to 8.0 MeV, Nuclear Physics A 212  Issue 2 (1973) 221-240

[28] J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, B.L. Berman, R.A. Alvarez, P. Meyer, Giant resonance for the actinide nuclei: Photoneutron and photofission cross sections for 233U, 236U, 238U and 232Th, Physical Review C 21 (1980) 1215.

[29] B.L. Berman, J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, S.S. Dietrich, P. Meyer, R.A. Alvarez Photo fission and photo neutron cross sections and photo fission neutron multiplicities for 233U 234U 237Np and 239pu, Physical Review C 34, (1986) 2201.

[30] M. Sin, R. Capote, A. Ventura, M. Herman, P. Oblozinsk´y, Fission of light actinides: 232Th (n,f) and 231Pa(n,f ) reactions, Physical Review C 74 (2006). 014608

[31] M. Sin, R. Capote, M.W. Herman, A. Trkov, Extended optical model for fission, Physical Review C 93 (2016) 034605

 [32] T. Frommhold, F. Streiper, W. Henkel, U. neissl, J. Ahrens, R. Beck, J. Peise, and M. Schmitz, Physical Letters B 295 (1992) 28.

 [33] C. Cetina, P. Heimberg, B. Berman, W. Briscoe, G. Feldman, L. Murphy, H. Crannell, A. Longhi, D. Sober, J. Sanabria, G. Kezerashvili, Photofission of heavy nuclei from 0.2 to 3.8 GeV, Physical Review C 65 (2002) 4.

[34] S.E. Vigdor, H.J. Karwowski, Influence of Deformed-Nucleus Level Densities on Statistical Model Calculations for High-Spin Fission, Physical Review C 26 (1982) 1068.

[35] A.V. Ignatyuk, G.N. Smirenkin, A.S. Tishin, Soviet Journal Nuclear Physics 21 (1975) 255.

[36] J. Ahrens, J. Arends, P. Bourgeois, P. Carlos, J. Fallou, N. Floss, P. Garganne, S. Huthmacher, U. Kneissl, G. Mank, , B. Mecking, H. Ries, R. Stenz, A. Veyssière, Measurement of the total cross section for 235U and 238U photofission in the δ-resonance region, Physics Letters B 146 (1984) 5 303-306.

[37] T. Frommhold, F. Streiper, W. Henkel, U. neissl, J. Ahrens, R. Beck, J. Peise, M. Schmitz, Total photofission cross section for 238U as a substitute for the photon absorption cross section in the energy range of the first baryon resonances, Physical Letters B 295(1992)28.